Delphy DD- 261 - Tarihçe

Delphy DD- 261 - Tarihçe


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Delfi

Richard Delphy, 18 Mayıs 1809'da Asteğmen olarak atandı ve 25 Ekim 1812'de HMS Makedon ile yaptığı savaş sırasında Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nde ayrıcalıklı bir şekilde görev yaptı. Argus'un 14 Ağustos 1813'te HMS Pelilan'a karşı zafer kazandığı eylemde öldürüldü.

(DD-261: dp. 1,190; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'3"; s. 35 k.; cpl. 120; a. 4 4", 2 3", 4 21" tt.; cl Clemson)

Delphy (DD-261), 18 Temmuz 1918'de Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Squantum, Mass.; Tümamiral Sims'in karısı Bayan W. S. Sims tarafından desteklendi ve Komutan R. A. Dawes komutasında 30 Kasım 1918'de görevlendirildi.

Atlantik Filosu'na katılmadan önce Delphy, 23-31 Aralık 1918 tarihleri ​​arasında New London'da denizaltı tespit cihazlarını test etti ve 1919'un Yılbaşı gününde Kuzey Pasifik'ten hayatta kalanlara yardım etti ve Fire Island, NY açıklarında mahsur kaldı. Delphy, kış manevraları için 13 Ocak'ta New York'tan yola çıktı. ve Karayipler'de torpido tatbikatı. Filo ile 14 Nisan'da New York'a dönerek, ilk transatlantik deniz uçağı uçuşuna hazırlık operasyonları için ayın son gününde Boston'a gitti.

Delphy 19 Kasım 1919'da Boston'dan batı kıyısına doğru yola çıktı ve 22 Aralık'ta San Diego'ya ulaştı. 12 Haziran'da yedekte tutulana kadar torpido talimi ve kurtarma için San Diego'daki Pasifik Filosu Destroyer Squadrons'a katıldı. Delphy, Reserve Destroyer Division'ın diğer gemileriyle Bremerton, Wash.

22 Temmuz 1921 ve 20 Mart 1922 arasında Delphy, San Diego'dan yüzde 50 tamamlayıcısı ile işletildi, ardından elden geçirildi. 6 Şubat - 11 Nisan 1923 tarihleri ​​arasında Balboa açıklarında tatbikatlar için Savaş Filosu ile seyir yaptı, ardından San Diego açıklarında torpidolarla deneyler yaptı. 25 Haziran'da, Dönüş yolunda Savaş Filosu ile yaz manevraları için Washington'a bir seyir için Destroyer Division 31 ile su altında kaldı. Delphy, 8 Eylül'de sert hava koşullarında Point Pedernales yakınlarındaki Kaliforniya sahilindeki kayalıklarda mahsur kalan yedi geminin önde gelen muhripiydi. Delphy bordaya çarptı ve ikiye ayrıldı, kıç yüzeyinin altında, üç ölü ve 15 yaralı. 26 Ekim 1923'te hizmet dışı bırakıldı ve 19 Ekim 1925'te enkaz olarak satıldı.


Delphy DD- 261 - Tarihçe

Bu sayfa, kaybından sonra USS Delphy (DD-261) hakkında sahip olduğumuz tüm görüşleri içerir ve bunlara bağlantılar sağlar.

Burada sunulan dijital görüntülerden daha yüksek çözünürlüklü reprodüksiyonlar istiyorsanız, bkz.

Aynı görüntünün daha büyük bir görünümünü istemek için küçük fotoğrafa tıklayın.

Honda Point Felaketi, Eylül 1923

USS Aroostook'a (CM-3) atanan bir uçaktan görülen, kuzeye bakan afet bölgesinin havadan görünümü. 8 Eylül 1923 gecesi Honda Point'te karaya oturan yedi muhripten altısı görülüyor. Bunlar:
USS Fuller (DD-297), solda
USS Woodbury (DD-309), Fuller'ın hemen önünde
USS Young (DD-312), görüntünün ortasında alabora oldu
USS Chauncey (DD-296), Young'ın hemen önünde dik
USS Nicholas (DD-311), merkezdeki kayaların ötesinde
ve USS Delphy (DD-261), Chauncey ve Nicholas arasındaki küçük koyda alabora oldu.
Kalan gemi USS S.P. Lee (DD-310), Nicholas'ın arkasında, kayalık noktanın arkasında gözden kayboldu.

Deniz Tarihi Vakfı'nın izniyle. Amiral William V. Pratt Koleksiyonu.

ABD Deniz Tarihi Merkezi Fotoğrafı.

Çevrimiçi Resim: 76KB 740 x 560 piksel

Honda Point Felaketi, Eylül 1923

Felaket bölgesinin havadan görünümü, 8 Eylül 1923 gecesi bir sis içinde karaya oturmuş yedi muhripi gösteriyor. Fotoğraf, USS Aroostook'a (CM-3) atanan bir uçaktan.
Gemiler: USS Nicholas (DD-311), sol ortada
USS S.P. Lee (DD-310), Nicholas'ın arkasında
USS Delphy (DD-261) küçük bir koyda alabora oldu (ortada)
USS Young (DD-312), görüntünün ortasında alabora oldu
USS Chauncey (DD-296), Young'ın tam önünde
USS Woodbury (DD-309) merkezdeki kayaların üzerinde
ve USS Fuller (DD-297), kameraya en yakın.

Deniz Tarihi Vakfı'nın izniyle. Amiral William V. Pratt Koleksiyonu.

ABD Deniz Tarihi Merkezi Fotoğrafı.

Çevrimiçi Resim: 99KB 740 x 610 piksel

Honda Point Felaketi, Eylül 1923

Felaket bölgesinin havadan görünümü, 8 Eylül 1923 gecesi Honda Point'te karaya oturmuş yedi muhripin tamamını gösteriyor. Fotoğraf, USS Aroostook'a (CM-3) atanan bir uçaktan.
Gemiler: USS Nicholas (DD-311), sol üstte
USS S.P. Lee (DD-310), Nicholas'ın arkasında
USS Delphy (DD-261), sol ortasında alabora oldu
USS Young (DD-312), görüntünün ortasında alabora oldu
USS Chauncey (DD-296), Young'ın tam önünde
USS Woodbury (DD-309) merkezdeki kayaların üzerinde
ve alt merkezde USS Fuller (DD-297).
Güney Pasifik Demiryolunun Honda İstasyonu sol üstte.

Deniz Tarihi Vakfı'nın izniyle. Amiral William V. Pratt Koleksiyonu.

ABD Deniz Tarihi Merkezi Fotoğrafı.

Çevrimiçi Resim: 113KB 740 x 605 piksel

Honda Point Felaketi, Eylül 1923

Felaket bölgesinin güney kısmının havadan görünümü, 8 Eylül 1923 gecesi Honda Point'te karaya oturmuş yedi muhripten beşini gösteriyor. Fotoğraf, USS Aroostook'a (CM-3) atanan bir uçaktan. Görünen gemiler:
USS Delphy (DD-261), soldaki küçük koyda alabora oldu
USS Young (DD-312), sol ortasında alabora oldu
USS Chauncey (DD-296), Young'ın tam önünde
USS Woodbury (DD-309) sağ merkezdeki kayaların üzerinde
ve sağdaki kayaların üzerinde USS Fuller (DD-297).
Güney Pasifik Demiryolunun Honda İstasyonu üst ortada.

Deniz Tarihi Vakfı'nın izniyle. Amiral William V. Pratt Koleksiyonu.

ABD Deniz Tarihi Merkezi Fotoğrafı.

Çevrimiçi Resim: 83KB 740 x 605 piksel

Honda Point Felaketi, Eylül 1923

Felaket bölgesinin güney kısmının havadan görünümü, 8 Eylül 1923 gecesi Honda Point'te karaya oturmuş yedi muhripten dördünü gösteriyor. Fotoğraf, USS Aroostook'a (CM-3) atanan bir uçaktan.
Görünen gemiler USS Delphy (DD-261), sol altta alabora olmuş USS Chauncey (DD-296), Delphy'nin hemen ötesinde USS Young (DD-312), Chauncey'nin kıç tarafında alabora ve sağda USS Woodbury (DD-309).
Point Arguello deniz feneri merkez mesafede.

Deniz Tarihi Vakfı'nın izniyle. Amiral William V. Pratt Koleksiyonu.

ABD Deniz Tarihi Merkezi Fotoğrafı.

Çevrimiçi Resim: 102KB 740 x 575 piksel

Honda Point Felaketi, Eylül 1923

USS Aroostook'a (CM-3) atanan bir uçaktan batıya doğru afet bölgesinin havadan görünümü. Görünürler, 8 Eylül 1923 gecesi Honda Point'te karaya oturan yedi muhripten beşi. Bunlar:
USS Fuller (DD-297), merkezdeki küçük kaya adasının ötesinde
USS Woodbury (DD-309), Fuller'ın hemen önünde
USS Chauncey (DD-296), kameraya en yakın
USS Young (DD-312), Chauncey'nin arkasında alabora oldu
ve zar zor görülebilen USS Delphy (DD-261) sağdaki sahilin hemen ötesinde alabora oldu.

Deniz Tarihi Vakfı'nın izniyle. Amiral William V. Pratt Koleksiyonu.


Içindekiler

NS Yok Edici No. 261 18 Temmuz 1918'de Squantum, Massachusetts'teki Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.'da koştu ve vaftiz edildi Delfi Amiral William S. Sims'in karısı tarafından. 30 Kasım 1918'de, destroyer Komutan RA Dawes altında görevlendirildi. Yeni inşa edilen Squantum Victory Yard'da tamamlanan ilk muhripti.

Yeni muhripin ilk görevlerinden biri, New London'da yeni denizaltı tespit araçlarını test etmekti. 1 Ocak 1919 tarihinden itibaren Deniz Taşımacılığı Kuzey Pasifik Ateş İzlanda'da gemide 2,481 asker vardı, çünkü buna aitti Delfi Donanmanın yardımcı gemilerine, abgeborgenen küçük denizaltı avcıları ile birlikte enkazdaki minibüsteki askerleri takip eden günlerde devraldı ve onları New York'a getirdi. 13 Ocak'ta, destroyer Karayipler'deki kış manevralarına katılmak ve keskin torpido atışları yapmak için tekrar New York'tan ayrıldı. Destroyer 14 Nisan'da New York'a döndü. Bu ayın sonunda, Delfi İlk transatlantik uçuşun sağlanmasında yer almak için Boston'a taşındı.

19 Kasım 1919'da, Delfi sonra Amerikan batı kıyısına taşınmak için Boston'dan ayrıldı. Gemi 22 Aralık'ta San Diego'ya ulaştı. Orada muhrip pratikte torpido atışlarında kullanıldı ve 12 Haziran 1920'de rezervine atandı. Noel'den sonra, muhrip rezervin diğer muhripleriyle birlikte Washington Eyaletindeki Bremerton'a taşındı ve burada gemi 4 Ocak 1921'de elden geçirildi. Puget Sound Donanma Yard. 22 Temmuz 1921'den 20 Mart 1922'ye kadar Delphy (önceki değeri) San Diego'da eğitim amaçlı %50 düzenli mürettebat ile tekrar eğitim amaçlı bunu tersanede bir konaklama izledi. Daha sonra yeniden hizmete giren muhrip, Panama açıklarındaki manevralara savaş filosuna eşlik etti ve 6 Şubat-11 Nisan 1923 tarihleri ​​arasında Balboa'dan hareket etti. Bu tatbikatları San Diego açıklarında torpido testleri izledi. 25 Haziran'da destroyer tekrar Yok Edici Bölüm 31 savaş filosu ile yaz manevraları için Washington'a.


Delfi Daha önce 20 yıl önce 4 yıl önce 1918'den beri Squantum Victory Yard için Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation ở Squantum, Massachusetts. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 18 tháng 7 năm 1918, được đỡ đầu bởi bà WS Sims, phu nhân Chuẩn đô đốc William Sims và được đưa ra hoạt được đưa ra hoạt được đưa ra hoạt đượng đưa ra hoạt đượng vào ủgạgà 11 Temmuz 1918 Hải quân RA Dawes.

Trước khi gia nhập Hạm đội Đại Tây Dương, Delfi tham gia thử nghiệm các thiết bị phát hiện tàu ngầm tại New London, Connecticut từ ngày 23 đến ngày 31 tháng 12 năm 1918, và đng tàu ngầm tại Kuzey Pasifik mắc cạn ngoài khơi đảo Fire, New York vào ngày đầu năm mới 1919. Nó khởi hành từ New York vào ngày 13 tháng 1 cho đợt cơ động và th. ngàmùpùp. Cùng với hạm đội quay trở về New York vào ngày 14 tháng 4, nó lên đường đi Boston, Massachusetts vào ngày cuối choy các hoạt động chuẩn bị cho chuyến êyươi Ti Bay vào ng êyươi Tiượiượ 4.

Delfi khởi hành từ Boston vào ngày 19 tháng 11 năm 1919 để đi sang vùng bờ Tây, đi đến San Diego, California vào ngày 22 tháng 12. Nó gia nhập Hải đội Khu trụmựhàc àc àcộu ểi. ngư lôi và cứu hộ đến khi được đưa về lực lượng dự bị vào ngày 12 tháng 6. No neo đậu tại San Diego cho đến ngày 27 tháng 12, khi cùcùuchu ngày 12. đi Bremerton, Washington, đến nơi vào ngày 4 tháng 1 năm 1921 cho một đợt đại tu kéo dài tại Xưởng hải quân Puget Sound.

22 Aralık 7 Aralık 1921 20 Aralık 3 Aralık 1922, Delfi Bu, San Diego'daki en büyük değerin %50'sinin, en iyisinin, en büyük değerinin %50'si. Nó di chuyển cùng với Hạm đội Chiến trận để thực hành ngoài khơi Balboa, Panama từ ngày 6 tháng 2 dến ngày 11 tháng 4 năm 1923, Diego San Diego San. 6'dan sonra 25, nó lên đường cùng với Đội khu trục 31 cho một chuyến đi đến Washington, nó thực tập cơ động ộyùa Hè cùng Hạtrụm

Bilgi için: Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân Donald T. Hunter, Delfi là chiếc khu truc daN đầu của mot đội Bay Tàu khu truc bị Djam yapmak va Cham ĐĂ Ngam DOC, bo biển Kaliforniya trong Hoàn CANH Sương Mu GÜN đặc vào Ngày 8 tháng 9 năm 1923 [2] Su, KIEN này được đặt on là değerlendirmesi họa Honda noktası. Delfi bị va vào bên mạn và bị vỡ làm đôi, đuôi tàu bị ngập bên dưới mực nước. En son 15 gün önce. En son tarihler arasında 26'dan 10'a kadar, 1923'ten sonra, 10'dan 1925'e kadar.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

der Yok Edici No. 261 Lief am 18. Temmuz 1918 Bei der Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. in Squantum (Massachusetts) vom Stapel und wurde auf den Namen Delfi von der Ehefrau des Amiraller William S. Sims getauft. Am 30. Kasım 1918 wurde der Zerstörer unter Komutan R. A. Dawes, Dienst gestellt. Sie war der erste Zerstörer, der auf dem neuerrichteten Squantum Victory Yard fertiggestellt wurde. [1]

Eine der ersten Aufgaben des neuen Zerstörers war der Test Neuer Hilfsmittel zur Entdeckung von U-Booten New London'da. Als am 1. Januar 1919 der Marine-Transporter Kuzey Pasifik bei Fire Island mit 2.481 Soldaten an Bord auf Grund lief [2] , gehörte die Delfi Deniz Kuvvetlerinden Hilfsschiffen der Navy, havarierten Taşıyıcı, en iyi U-Boot-Jägern abgeborgenen Soldaten in folgenden Tagen übernahmen und nach New York brachten. Am 13. Januar verließ der Zerstörer wieder New York, um in der Karibik ve Winter-Manövern teilzunehmen und scharfes Torpedoschießen zu üben. Am 14. Nisan kehrte der Zerstörer dann New York zurück. Ende ölür Monats verlegte die Delfi Nach Boston, Sicherung des ersten Transatlantikfluges teilzunehmen. [3]

Am 19. Kasım 1919 verließ ölmek Delfi dann Boston, um bir amerikan Westküste zu verlegen. 22 yaşındayım. Aralık ayı Schiff ve San Diego'da. Dort wurde der Zerstörer, Übungs-Torpedoschießen eingesetzt und am 12. Haziran 1920 der Reserve zugeordnet. Bundesstaat Washington, wo das Schiff ab dem 4. Januar 1921 im Puget Sound Navy Yard überholt wurde. Vom 22. Temmuz 1921 bis zum 20. März 1922 savaş ölümü Delfi San Diego'da zu Ausbildungszwecken mit einer %50 Stamm-Mannschaft wieder zu Ausbildungszwecken im Dienst daran schloss sich wieder eine Werftliegezeit an. Anschließend Wieder in Dienst gestellt, Begleitete der Zerstörer die Schlachtflotte zu Manövern vor Panama und operierte aus Balboa vom 6. Februar bis zum 11. Nisan 1923. Bir diese Übungen schlossen sich Erprobungen schlossen sich Erprobungen von Torpedos vor San Diego an. Ben 25. Juni lief der Zerstörer dann in der Yok Edici Bölüm 31 Wieder nach Washington für Sommermanöver mit der Schlachtflotte. [3]

Auf der Rückreise führte ölmek Delfi mit dem Geschwaderkommandeur, Kaptan Edward H. Watson, bir Bord. Das Geschwader en iyi ve 14 Schiffen, die alle der Clemson-Klasse angehörten und jünger als fünf Jahre waren. Watson befand sich auf dem Zerstörer USS Delphy (DD-261), der die Linie anführte. Auf dem Weg von San Francisco Nach San Diego içinde Kalifornien drehten die Schiffe, 8 Eylül um 21:00 Uhr nach Osten auf einen Kurs von 095°, um den Santa Barbara Channel anzusteuern. Die Navigation beruhte auf Kopplung. Zwar verfügte ölür Delfi über eine Funkpeileinrichtung, jedoch vertraute adam dieser neuen Technik nicht und hielt die Peilungen für fehlerhaft. Her şeyi değiştir. Delfi Zerstörer'in Zerstörer'i ve Spitze'nin en iyi iş yerlerini araştırın. Die Zerstörer liefen fälschlich auf Felsen vor der kalifornischen Küste zu, da sie näher an der Küste standen und nicht bu yüzden weit im Süden waren, wie gekoppelt. Trotz alerjisi Alarmierungsbemühungen iplikçik sieben Zerstörer vor der Küste und gingen verloren. [4]
siehe Honda Point'ten Schiffskatastrophe

Ölmek Delfi Lief breitseits auf und zerbrach, ein Teil des Hecks blieb unter Wasser. Drei Mann der Crew starben ve 15 Mann wurden verletzt. [3] Der aufgelaufene Zerstörer wurde am 26. Ekim 1923 außer Dienst gestellt und das Wrack am 19. Ekim 1925 verkauft. [5]

  • Die anderen bei Honda Point verlorenen Zerstörer, siehe USS SP Lee (GG-310)
  • Die Zerstörer, die den Unfall überstanden, die alle sieben in Kalifornien bei der Bethlehem Steel-Tochter Birlik Demir İşleri San Francisco'da zwischen Juli 1918 ve Eylül 1920 entstanden waren:
  • Anthony Preston, Randal Gray (Saat): Conway'in Tüm Dünya Savaşan Gemiler 1906-1921. Conway Maritime Press Ltd, Londra 1985, ISBN 0-85177-245-5.
  1. ↑ abcCLEMSON muhripleri (1918–1922)
  2. ↑Kuzey Pasifik DANFS
  3. ↑ abcDelfi (Yok edici No. 261)
  4. ↑Point Pedernales Desaster
  5. ↑USS DELPHY (GG-261)
  6. Percival I (Yok Edici No. 298)
  7. farragut II (Destroyer No. 300) 1920–1930
  8. Somer IV (Yok Edici No. 301)
  9. Stoddert (Yok edici No. 302)
  10. Thompson I (Yok edici No. 305) 1919–1930
  11. ↑EX-USS THOMPSON
  12. Kennedy (Yok edici No. 306)
  13. Paul Hamilton I (Yok Edici No. 307)

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Bu, şu anda geçerli olan bir şey değil.

  • DD - 129 - USS Delphy DD - 261 - USS Dennis J. Buckley DD - 808 - USS Dent DD - 116 - USS Denver - USS Denver C - 14 - USS Denver CL - 58 - USS Denver LPD - 9
  • DD - 129 - USS Delphy DD - 261 - USS Dennis J. Buckley DD - 808 - USS Dent DD - 116 - USS Denver - USS Denver C - 14 - USS Denver CL - 58 - USS Denver LPD - 9
  • Turner DD - 260 Gillis DD - 261 Delphy DD - 262 McDermut DD - 263 Laub DD - 264 McLanahan DD - 265 Edwards DD - 266 Greene DD - 267 Ballard DD - 268 Shubrick

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uss delphy (dd-261), škrbine veya vojaških plovilih. uss delphy (gg-261),

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İçindekiler

VQ20DE Düzenle

Bu DOHC 24-valf 2.0 L (1.995 cc) V6, sırasıyla 76 mm × 73,3 mm (2,99 inç × 2,89 inç) iç çap ve strok boyutlarına ve 9,5 ila 10,0:1 arasında değişen bir sıkıştırma oranına sahiptir. 6400 rpm'de 150 PS (110 kW 148 hp) ila 160 PS (118 kW 158 hp) ve 4400 rpm'de (zayıf yanma) 137 ila 145 lb⋅ft (186 ila 197 N⋅m) güç üretir.

Aşağıdaki araçlara takılır:

  • 1994-2003 Nissan Cefiro A32 ve A33
  • 1995–1999 Nissan QX A32
  • 2000–2005 Hongqi Century Star - Hongqi CA7180 ve 7202 Audi 100 tabanlı

VQ23DE Düzenle

NS VQ23DE CVTC (Sürekli Değişken Valf Zamanlama Kontrolü) ile donatılmış 2.3 L (2349 cc) bir motordur. Çap ve strok 85 mm × 69 mm'dir (3,35 inç × 2,72 inç), sıkıştırma oranı 9,8:1'dir. 6000 rpm'de 173 PS (127 kW 171 hp) ve 4400 rpm'de 166 lb⋅ft (225 N⋅m) güç üretiyor.

Aşağıdaki araçlara takılır:

  • 2003–2008 Nissan Teana 230JM-J31 (Neo VQ23)
  • 2006–2011 Renault Samsung SM7 177 PS (130 kW 175 hp) (Neo VQ23)
  • 2008–2011 Renault Safrane 177 PS (130 kW 175 hp) (Neo VQ23)

VQ25DE Düzenle

Bu motor VQ20DE'ye benzer, ancak 2.5 L (2.496 cc) deplasmana sahiptir. Çap ve strok 85 mm × 73,3 mm'dir (3,35 inç × 2,89 inç), sıkıştırma oranı 9,8 ila 10,3:1'dir. 6400 rpm'de 190 ila 210 PS (140 ila 154 kW 187 ila 207 hp) ve 174 ila 195 lb⋅ft (236 ila 264 N⋅m) tork üretir. Daha sonraki sürümler, 6000 rpm'de 186 PS (137 kW 183 hp) ve 3200 rpm'de 171 lb⋅ft (232 N⋅m) üretir. Bazı Nissanlarda bu motor QR25DE ile değiştirildi.

  • 1994–1998 Nissan Cefiro (A32)
  • 2000–2003 Nissan Cefiro (A33)
  • 1996–1999 Nissan Leoparı (FY33)
  • 1997–1999 Nissan Cedric (Y33)
  • 2004–2007 Nissan Fuga (Y50)
  • 2004–2007 Infiniti M (Y50)
  • 2004–2010 Nissan Elgrand (E51)
  • 2008–2011 Nissan Teana (J32)
  • 2010-günümüz Renault Samsung SM5 (L43) 178 PS (131 kW 176 hp)
  • 2010-günümüz Renault Latitude (L43) 178 PS (131 kW 176 hp)

VQ25DET Düzenle

NS VQ25DET CVTC'li turboşarjlı 2.5 L (2.495 cc) bir motordur. Çap ve strok 85 mm × 73,3 mm'dir (3,35 inç × 2,89 inç), sıkıştırma oranı 8,5:1'dir. 6400 rpm'de 280 PS (206 kW 276 hp) ve 3200 rpm'de 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m) üretiyor.

Aşağıdaki araçlara takılır:

VQ30DE Düzenle

3.0 L (2.987 cc) VQ30DE 10.0:1 sıkıştırma oranı ile sırasıyla 93 mm × 73,3 mm (3,66 inç × 2,89 inç) çap ve strok değerine sahiptir. 6400 rpm'de 193 PS (142 kW 190 hp) ila 227 PS (167 kW 224 hp) ve 4400 rpm'de 205 ila 217 lb⋅ft (278 ila 294 N⋅m) üretir. VQ30DE, 1995'ten 2001'e kadar Ward'ın En İyi 10 Motoru listesindeydi. Mikro-finish iç kısımları ve nispeten hafif ağırlığı olan bir alüminyum açık güverte bloğu tasarımıdır.

VQ30DE'nin geliştirilmiş bir versiyonu, atama ile bilinir. VQ30DE-K. K harfi, Japonca'da "iyileştirme" anlamına gelen kaizen kelimesinin kısaltmasıdır. Motor 2000–2001 Nissan Maxima'da kullanıldı ve bu motorun daha önceki bazı Japon ve Orta Doğu pazar sürümlerine kıyasla daha iyi üst düzey performans için gerçek bir çift yollu emme manifoldu ekler (2000-2001 Infiniti I30 modelleri ek bir çamurluk girişi, gücü 227 PS'ye (224 hp 167 kW) yükseltir). VQ30DEK 227 PS (167 kW 224 hp) güç üretiyor. 1995-1999 ABD spec VQ30DE, yalnızca tek bir koşucu emme manifoldu ile donatıldı.

  • 1994–1998 Nissan Cefiro (A32), 220 PS (162 kW 217 hp) ve 206 lb⋅ft (279 N⋅m)
  • 1995–1999 Nissan QX (A32)
  • 1995–1999 Nissan Maxima (A32), 192 PS (141 kW 189 hp) ve 205 lb⋅ft (278 N⋅m)
  • 1996–1999 Infiniti I30 (A32), 192 PS (141 kW 189 hp) ve 205 lb⋅ft (278 N⋅m)
  • 2000–2001 Nissan Maxima (A33), 225 PS (165 kW 222 hp) ve 217 lb⋅ft (294 N⋅m) 227 PS (167 kW 224 hp) Anniversary Edition SE için
  • 2000–2001 Infiniti I30 (A33), 230 PS (169 kW 227 hp) ve 217 lb⋅ft (294 N⋅m)
  • 1999–2003 Nissan Bassara U30, 223 PS (164 kW 220 hp) ve 206 lb⋅ft (279 N⋅m)
  • 1998–2003 Nissan Presage U30, 223 PS (164 kW 220 hp) ve 206 lb⋅ft (279 N⋅m)
  • 2002–2004 Dallara SN01, Nissan Dünya Serisi

VQ30DET Düzenle

3.0 L (2.987 cc) VQ30DET VQ30DE'nin turboşarjlı bir versiyonudur. Delik ve strok sırasıyla 93 mm × 73,3 mm (3,66 inç × 2,89 inç) boyutlarında aynı kalır ve 9,0:1 sıkıştırma oranına sahiptir. 270 PS (199 kW 266 hp) ve 271 lb⋅ft (367 N⋅m) üretir. 1998'den itibaren, 6000 rpm'de 280 PS (206 kW 276 hp) ve 3600 rpm'de 285 lb⋅ft (386 N⋅m) üretiyor.

Aşağıdaki araçlara takılır:

  • 1995–2004 Nissan Gloria Y33, Y34
  • 1995–2004 Nissan Cedric Y33, Y34
  • 1997–1999 Nissan Leopar Y33
  • 1996-2001 Nissan Cima Y33
  • 2001–2007 Nissan Cima F50

VQ30DETT Düzenle

çift ​​turbo VQ30DETT sadece Nissan'ın yarış arabalarında, özellikle Super GT'de (eski adıyla JGTC) kullanılan bir motordur. İlk olarak 2002 sezonunda Skyline GT-R yarış arabalarında kullanılan bu motor daha sonra Fairlady Z yarış arabalarına güç verdi. Homologasyon kuralları, stok VQ35DE yerine VQ30DETT kullanmalarına izin verir. Bu motorun yarış çıkışının yaklaşık 480 PS (353 kW 473 hp) olduğu tahmin ediliyor.

VQ30DETT, 2007'de Super GT Fairlady Z'lerde ve daha sonra GT-R'de kullanılmak üzere VK45DE ile değiştirildi.

Aşağıdaki araçlarda kullanıldı:

  • 2002–2003 Skyline GT-R JGTC yarış arabaları (Üretim Dışı)
  • 2004 Fairlady Z JGTC yarış arabaları (Üretim Dışı)
  • 2005–2006 Fairlady ZSuper GT yarış arabaları (Üretim Dışı)

VQ35DE Düzenle

3.5 L (3.498 cc) VQ35DE birçok modern Nissan aracında kullanılmaktadır. Delik ve strok 95,5 mm × 81,4 mm'dir (3,76 inç × 3,20 inç). VQ30DE'ye benzer bir blok tasarımı kullanır, ancak değişken valf zamanlaması (CVTCS) ekler. Uygulamaya bağlı olarak 231 ila 304 PS (170 ila 224 kW 228 ila 300 hp) güç ve 246 ila 274 lb⋅ft (334 ila 371 N⋅m) tork üretir.

VQ35DE, Iwaki ve Decherd, TN'de üretilmiştir. 2002'den 2007'ye ve yine 2016'da Ward'ın En İyi 10 Motor listesindeydi. Dövme çelik bağlantı çubukları, mikro finişli tek parça dövme krank mili ve Nissan'ın naylon emme manifoldu teknolojisine sahiptir. Düşük sürtünmeli molibden kaplı pistonlara sahiptir ve giriş, yüksek akış ayarlı bir endüksiyon sistemidir. Kuruluşundan bu yana Nissan, VQ35DE'yi, verimli bir sınıf lideri V6 motoru tutan değişikliklerle geliştirdi. Motor 2005 yılında VQ35DE Rev-up olarak güncellendi. Egzoz zamanlaması, daha yüksek devir limiti ve çıkışı 298 beygir gücüne yükselten küçük dahili yükseltmeleri içeriyordu.

VQ35DE'nin S1 olarak adlandırılan değiştirilmiş bir versiyonu, Fairlady Z S-Tune GT için Nismo (Nissan'ın motor sporları ve performans bölümü) tarafından üretildi. 7.200 rpm'de 300 PS (221 kW 296 hp) üretiyor, orijinalinden daha yüksek bir devir sınırı VQ35DE.

yıllar modeli Güç çıkışı
2001–2004 Nissan Yol Bulucu 240 hp (179 kW 243 PS)
2013–2016 Nissan Yol Bulucu 260 - 284 hp (194 - 212 kW 264 - 288 PS)
2001–2003 Infiniti QX4 240 hp (179 kW 243 PS)
2001–2004 Infiniti I35 255 hp (190 kW 259 PS)
2002–2018 Nissan Altima 240 - 270 hp (179 - 201 kW 243 - 274 PS)
2002–günümüz Nissan Maxima 255 - 300 hp (190 - 224 kW 259 - 304 PS)
2002–2006 Nissan 350Z 287 - 300 hp (214 - 224 kW 291 - 304 PS)
2002–2007 Infiniti G35 Coupe 280 - 298 hp (209 - 222 kW 284 - 302 PS)
2002–2006 Infiniti G35 Sedan 260 - 298 hp (194 - 222 kW 264 - 302 PS)
2002–2008 Infiniti FX35 280 hp (209 kW 284 PS)
2002–günümüz Nissan Murano (Z50) 240 - 265 hp (179 - 198 kW 243 - 269 PS)
2003–2016 Nissan Görevi 235 ila 260 hp (175 ila 194 kW 238 ila 264 PS)
2004–2008 sonsuz M35 275 - 280 hp (205 - 209 kW 279 - 284 PS)
2012–2013 Infiniti JX35 265 hp (198 kW 269 PS)
2013–2016 Infiniti QX60 265 - 295 hp (198 - 220 kW 269 - 299 PS)

yıllar modeli Güç çıkışı
2000–günümüz Nissan Elgrand 240 PS (177 kW 237 hp)
2001–2007 Nissan Sahne 272 PS (200 kW 268 hp) ve üzeri
2001–2009 Renault Vel Satis 241 PS (177 kW 238 hp)
2002–2007 Nissan Skyline (V35) 272 PS (200 kW 268 hp) ve üzeri
2003–günümüz Nissan Teana/Cefiro (350JM-J31) 231 PS (170 kW 228 hp)
2003–2009 Nissan Presage 231 hp (172 kW 234 PS)
2003–2014 Renault Espace 241 PS (177 kW 238 hp)
2003–2004 Tatius Formula V6, Formula Renault V6 Eurocup 370 hp (276 kW 375 PS)
2004–2007 Nissan Fuga 350 GT 300 PS (221 kW 296 hp)
2005–2006 Nismo Fairlady Z S-Tune GT 300 PS (221 kW 296 hp) (VQ35DE S1 motor)
2005–2007 Dallara T05, Renault Dünya Serisi 425 PS (313 kW 419 hp)
2006–2020 Renault Samsung SM7 217 PS (160 kW 214 hp) (Neo VQ35)
2008–2015 Renault Laguna Coupé 241 PS (177 kW 238 hp)
2008–2011 Dallara T08, Renault Dünya Serisi 425 PS (313 kW 419 hp)
2010–2015 Renault Latitude 253 PS (186 kW 250 hp)
2012–günümüz Dallara T12, Renault Dünya Serisi 490 PS (360 kW 483 hp)

VQ40DE Düzenle

NS VQ40DE VQ35DE'nin 4.0 L (3.954 cc) daha uzun stroklu bir çeşididir. Delik ve strok 95,5 mm × 92 mm'dir (3,76 inç × 3,62 inç). Sıkıştırma oranı 9,5:1

İyileştirmeler arasında sürekli değişken valf zamanlaması, değişken emme sistemi, sessiz zamanlama zinciri, içi boş ve daha hafif eksantrik milleri ve sürtünme azaltma (mikro-finiş yüzeyler, moly kaplı pistonlar) yer alır. Platin uçlu bujilerle enjekte edilen liman yakıtıdır. 5600 rpm'de 261 ila 275 hp (195 ila 205 kW 265 ila 279 PS) ve 4000 rpm'de 281 ila 288 lb⋅ft (381 ila 390 N⋅m) üretir.

yıllar modeli Güç çıkışı tork
2005–2019 Nissan Sınırı (D40) 5600 rpm'de 268 hp (200 kW 272 PS) 4000 rpm'de 285 lb⋅ft (386 N⋅m)
2005–2015 Nissan Xterra 5600 rpm'de 271 hp (202 kW 275 PS) 4000 rpm'de 294 lb⋅ft (399 N⋅m)
2005–2012 Nissan Yol Bulucu 5600 rpm'de 269 hp (201 kW 273 PS) 4000 rpm'de 290 lb⋅ft (393 N⋅m)
2009–2013 Suzuki Ekvatoru 5600 rpm'de 276 hp (206 kW 280 PS) 4000 rpm'de 283 lb⋅ft (384 N⋅m)
2012–günümüz Nissan NV1500 5600 rpm'de 270 hp (201 kW 274 PS) 4000 rpm'de 291 lb⋅ft (395 N⋅m)
2012–günümüz Nissan NV2500 HD 5600 rpm'de 271 hp (202 kW 275 PS) 4000 rpm'de 282 lb⋅ft (382 N⋅m)
2012–günümüz Nissan NV Yolcu 5600 rpm'de 269 hp (201 kW 273 PS) 4000 rpm'de 294 lb⋅ft (399 N⋅m)
2017–günümüz nissan devriyesi 5600 rpm'de 275 hp (205 kW 279 PS) 4000 rpm'de 291 lb⋅ft (395 N⋅m)

DD serisi, doğrudan yakıt enjeksiyonlu (NEO-Di) ve eVTC'li (elektronik olarak kontrol edilen sürekli değişken valf zamanlaması) DE serisi motorların bir çeşididir.

VQ25DD Düzenle

2.5 L (2.495 cc) motor, 11 ila 11,3:1 sıkıştırma oranı ile sırasıyla 85 mm ve 73,3 mm Delik ve strok değerine sahiptir. 6400 rpm'de 209,9 PS (154,4 kW 207,0 hp) ila 215 PS (158 kW 212 hp) ve 4400 rpm'de 195 ila 199 lb⋅ft (264 ila 270 N⋅m) güç üretir.

Aşağıdaki araçlara takılır:

  • 1999–2002 Nissan Cefiro A33, 209,9 PS (154,4 kW 207,0 hp) (JDM)
  • 1999–2004 Nissan Cedric/Nissan Gloria
  • 2001–2006 Nissan Skyline V35, 215 PS (158 kW 212 hp)
  • 2001–2007 Nissan Stagea M35, 215 PS (158 kW 212 hp)

VQ30DD Düzenle

3.0 L (2.987 cc) motor, 11.0:1 sıkıştırma oranı ile 93 mm ve 73,3 mm iç çap ve strok değerine sahiptir. 6400 rpm'de 231.54 PS (170.30 kW 228.37 hp) ila 258.78 PS (190.33 kW 255.24 hp) ve 3600 rpm'de 217 ila 239 lb⋅ft (294 ila 324 N⋅m) güç üretir.

Aşağıdaki araçlara takılır:

  • 1997–1999 Nissan Leopard Y33 231 PS (170 kW 228 hp) ve 217 lb⋅ft (294 N⋅m)
  • 1999–2004 Nissan Cedric Y34
  • 1999–2004 Nissan Gloria Y34 245 PS (180 kW 242 hp) ve 228 lb⋅ft (309 N⋅m)
  • 2001–2004 Nissan Skyline V35
  • 2001–2004 Nissan Stagea M35 258,78 PS 190,33 kW 255,24 hp) ve 239 lb⋅ft (324 N⋅m)

VQ35DD Düzenle

2017 model yılı için doğrudan enjeksiyonlu daha büyük bir 3.5L piyasaya sürüldü.

Aşağıdaki araçlara takılır:

VQ38DD Düzenle

2020 model yılı için doğrudan enjeksiyonlu 3.8 L versiyonu piyasaya sürüldü.

Aşağıdaki araçlara takılır:

VQ25HR Düzenle

2.5 L VQ25HR ("Yüksek Devir" veya "Yüksek Tepki" için) yalnızca arkadan çekişli veya dört tekerlekten çekişli olma eğiliminde olan uzunlamasına monte edilmiş motorlu araçlarda sunulur. Çap ve strok 85 mm × 73,3 mm'dir (3,35 inç × 2,89 inç), sıkıştırma oranı 10.3:1'dir. 6.800 rpm'de 221–228 PS (163–168 kW 218–225 hp) ve 4.800 rpm'de 194 lb⋅ft (263 N⋅m) üretir. Hem emme hem de egzoz için çift CVTC'ye, mikro finisajlı eksantrik millerine ve 7.500 rpm'lik bir kırmızı çizgiye sahiptir.

Aşağıdaki araçlara takılır:

yıllar modeli Güç çıkışı
2006–2012 Nissan Skyline V6 250GT Sedan 229 PS (168 kW 226 hp)
2006–2012 Nissan Fuga 250GT 223 PS (164 kW 220 hp)
2006–2012 Infiniti M V6 M25 Sedan 218 hp (163 kW 221 PS)
2010–2012 Infiniti EX J50 EX25 Çapraz SUV 222 PS (163 kW 219 hp)
2011–2012 Infiniti G25 Sedan 218 hp (163 kW 221 PS)
2012 Mitsubishi Proudia 250 VIP 223 PS (164 kW 220 hp)

VQ35HR Düzenle

VQ35HR motoru ilk olarak ABD'de Ağustos 2006'da piyasaya sürülen güncellenmiş 2007 G35 Sedan modelinin tanıtımıyla görüldü. Nissan, VQ serisini 3.5 L'nin eklenmesiyle güncelledi. VQ35HR ("Yüksek Devrim" için). 6800 rpm'de 315 PS (232 kW 311 hp) (ABD pazarı: revize edilmiş SAE sertifikalı güç karşılaştırması kullanılarak 306 hp (228 kW 310 PS) ve 4.800 rpm'de 37 kg⋅m (363 N⋅m 268 lb⋅ft) güç üretiyor. rpm, 10.6:1 sıkıştırma oranı kullanarak. 2009 itibariyle, Infiniti EX35, muhtemelen daha sıkı düzenlemeler nedeniyle 297 hp (221 kW 301 PS) ve aynı torku üretiyor. It has NDIS (Nissan Direct Ignition System) and CVTC with hydraulic actuation on the intake cam and electromagnetic on the exhaust cam. Redline is 7,600 rpm. Reportedly over 80% of the internal components were redesigned or strengthened to handle an increased RPM range sporting a lofty 7,600 rpm redline. A new dual-path intake (two air cleaners, throttle bodies, etc.) lowers intake tract restriction by 18 percent and new equal-length exhaust manifolds lead into mufflers that are 25 percent more free-flowing for all around better airflow. The electrically actuated variable valve timing on the exhaust cams to broaden the torque curve is new over the "DE" engine. The new engine block retained the same bore and stroke, but the connecting rods were lengthened and the block deck was raised by 8.4 mm to reduce piston side-loads. This modification, along with the use of larger crank bearings with main bearing caps reinforced by a rigid ladder-type main cap girdle to allow the engine reliably rev to 7600 rpm. With an increase in compression ratio from 10.3:1 to 10.6:1 these changes add 6 more horsepower (306 hp (228 kW) total + 3 hp ram air effect not measured by SAE testing = 309 hp (230 kW)). Peak torque is up 8 pound-feet from the older "DE" engine, 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) vs 268 lb⋅ft (363 N⋅m) and the torque curve is higher and flatter across most of the rpm range, and especially in the lower rpm range. The VQ35HR was utilized in rear-wheel-drive platforms while the VQ35DE continued to power Nissan's front-wheel-drive vehicles. In 2010, Nissan introduced a hybrid version of the VQ35HR, pairing the engine to a lithium-ion battery pack.

Years modeli Power output
2007–2008 Infiniti G35 306 hp (228 kW 310 PS)
2007–2008 Nissan Skyline V36 350GT Sedan 308 hp (230 kW 312 PS)
2007–2008 Nissan 350Z 313 hp (233 kW 317 PS) US Market using revised SAE certified power benchmark - 306 hp (228 kW 310 PS)
2006–2008 Nissan Fuga 350 GT 308 hp (230 kW 312 PS)
2008–2012 Infiniti EX35 Crossover SUV 297 hp (221 kW 301 PS)
2009–2012 Infiniti FX35 Crossover SUV 303 hp (226 kW 307 PS)
2009–2010 Infiniti M35 303 hp (226 kW 307 PS)
2011–2013 Infiniti M35h Engine: 302 hp (225 kW 306 PS), Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)
2010–present Nissan Fuga Hybrid Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)
2012–2020 Nissan Cima Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)
2012–2016 Mitsubishi Dignity Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)
2014–present Infiniti Q50 Hybrid Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)
2014–2019 Infiniti Q70 Hybrid Combined: 360 hp (268 kW 365 PS)

VQ38HR Edit

By 2007, Nissan's ambition to increase the competitiveness of the Z33 chassis in Super Taikyu racing resulted in the development of a larger displacement engine based on the original VQ35HR Block. The end result was the VQ38HR powered Nismo Type 380RS-C which went on to dominate ST class 1 racing. The 3.8-liter racing engine in the 380RS-C develops maximum power of more than 294 kW (394 hp 400 PS), and maximum torque of 421 N⋅m (311 lb⋅ft). [1] In order to use this new engine in Super GT GT500, limited numbers of the engine were reproduced in the street-legal Fairlady Z Nismo Type 380RS. The VQ38HR engine mounted in the 380RS is a detuned, street version of the racing engine used in the 380RS-C. The engine displacement remains the same, while the intake manifold and exhaust, air-fuel ratio, ignition timing, VTC and other specs have been optimized for street use. The engine produces maximum power of 257 kW (345 hp 349 PS) at 7200 rpm, and maximum torque of 397 N⋅m (293 lb⋅ft) at 4800 rpm. [2]

The VQ38HR fitted to the following vehicles:

  • 2007–2008 Nissan Fairlady Z Version Nismo Type 380RS-C
  • 2007–2008 Nissan Fairlady Z Version Nismo Type 380RS

Üretim Düzenleme

The VQ35HR and VQ25HR engines were built at Nissan's Iwaki Plant in Fukushima Prefecture. [3] [4]

The VHR series is a variation of the VQ-HR engine series with Nissan's VVEL (Variable Valve Event and Lift).

VQ37VHR Edit

It was the first production engine from Nissan using VVEL. It has a compression ratio of 11.0:1, with a displacement of 3.7 L 225.5 cu in (3,696 cc), thanks to a bore x stroke of 95.5 mm × 86 mm (3.76 in × 3.39 in) and a redline of 7,500 rpm. It is rated at 332 bhp (337 PS 248 kW) at 7,000 rpm and 270 lb⋅ft (366 N⋅m) of torque at 5,200 rpm, and up to 350 bhp (355 PS 261 kW) at 7,400 rpm and 276 lb⋅ft (374 N⋅m) of torque at 5,200 rpm. Although the engine VQ37VHR gains only 2 lb⋅ft (3 N⋅m) and 8 lb⋅ft (11 N⋅m) in the Nissan 370Z Nismo, torque over the VQ35HR and this higher torque arrives at 5,200 rpm vs 4,800 rpm in the VQ35HR, the torque curve itself is improved and flattened via VVEL variable valve timing for better throttle response and low rpm torque.


İçindekiler

The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in May 1996, [1] [2] with the goal of making the service public five years later. [3]

Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in San Francisco, California, [4] in October 2001, [5] [6] primarily to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or when a website is shut down. [7] The service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three-dimensional index". [8] Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge". [9] The name "Wayback Machine" is a reference to a fictional time-traveling and translation device, the "Wayback Machine", used by the characters Mister Peabody and Sherman in the animated cartoon The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle and Friends. [10] [11] In one of the cartoon's segments, "Peabody's Improbable History", the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, and often alter famous events in history.

From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the "clunky" database. [12] When the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. [13] By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it already contained over 10 billion archived pages. [14] The data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes. [9] It revisits and archives new versions of websites on occasion (see technical details below). [15] Sites can also be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. [3]

On October 30, 2020, the Wayback Machine began fact-checking content. [16]

Software has been developed to "crawl" the Web and download all publicly accessible information and data files on webpages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews (Usenet) bulletin board system, and downloadable software. [17] The information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible. To overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, and create digital archives. [18]

Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. [15] For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl. [15] The "Worldwide Web Crawls" have been running since 2010 and capture the global Web. [15] [19]

The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. [15] Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. [15] A crawl can take months or even years to complete, depending on size. [15] For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, and completed on July 11, 2016. [20] However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, and a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how often a site is crawled varies widely. [15]

As of October 2019, users are limited to 5 archival requests and retrievals per minute. [ kaynak belirtilmeli ] [ niye ya? ]

Storage capacity and growth Edit

As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month. The data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became fully operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that. [21] [22]

The Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, and hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. [23] As of 2009 [update] , the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. [24]

A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. [25] In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, and will continue to be updated regularly. The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, and no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." [26] Also in 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. [27]

In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. [28]

In October 2013, the company introduced the "Save a Page" feature [29] [30] which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL, and quickly generates a permanent link unlike the preceding liveweb özellik.

In December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, and was growing at about 20 terabytes a week. [14] [31] [32]

In March 2015, [ date verification needed ] security researchers became aware of the threat posed by the service's unintentional hosting of malicious binaries from archived sites. [33] [34]

In July 2016, the Wayback Machine reportedly contained around 15 petabytes of data. [35]

In September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained over 25 petabytes of data. [36] [37]

As of December 2020, the Wayback Machine contained over 70 petabytes of data. [38]

Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 [41] to 208. [42] In March 2019 the rank was at 244. [43]

Website exclusion policy Edit

Historically, Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard (robots.txt) in determining if a website would be crawled – or if already crawled, if its archives would be publicly viewable. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback Machine through the use of robots.txt. It applied robots.txt rules retroactively if a site blocked the Internet Archive, any previously archived pages from the domain were immediately rendered unavailable as well. In addition, the Internet Archive stated that "Sometimes a website owner will contact us directly and ask us to stop crawling or archiving a site. We comply with these requests." [44] In addition, the website says: "The Internet Archive is not interested in preserving or offering access to Web sites or other Internet documents of persons who do not want their materials in the collection." [45] [46]

On April 17, 2017, reports surfaced of sites that had gone defunct and became parked domains that were using robots.txt to exclude themselves from search engines, resulting in them being inadvertently excluded from the Wayback Machine. [47] The Internet archive changed the policy to now require an explicit exclusion request to remove it from the Wayback Machine. [48]

Oakland Archive Policy Edit

Wayback's retroactive exclusion policy is based in part upon Recommendations for Managing Removal Requests and Preserving Archival Integrity published by the School of Information Management and Systems at University of California, Berkeley in 2002, which gives a website owner the right to block access to the site's archives. [49] Wayback has complied with this policy to help avoid expensive litigation. [50]

The Wayback retroactive exclusion policy began to relax in 2017, when it stopped honoring robots.txt on U.S. government and military web sites for both crawling and displaying web pages. As of April 2017, Wayback is ignoring robots.txt more broadly, not just for U.S. government websites. [51] [52] [53] [54]

From its public launch in 2001, the Wayback Machine has been studied by scholars both for the ways it stores and collects data as well as for the actual pages contained in its archive. As of 2013, scholars had written about 350 articles on the Wayback Machine, mostly from the information technology, library science, and social science fields. Social science scholars have used the Wayback Machine to analyze how the development of websites from the mid-1990s to the present has affected the company's growth. [14]

When the Wayback Machine archives a page, it usually includes most of the hyperlinks, keeping those links active when they just as easily could have been broken by the Internet's instability. Researchers in India studied the effectiveness of the Wayback Machine's ability to save hyperlinks in online scholarly publications and found that it saved slightly more than half of them. [55]

"Journalists use the Wayback Machine to view dead websites, dated news reports, and changes to website contents. Its content has been used to hold politicians accountable and expose battlefield lies." [56] In 2014, an archived social media page of Igor Girkin, a separatist rebel leader in Ukraine, showed him boasting about his troops having shot down a suspected Ukrainian military airplane before it became known that the plane actually was a civilian Malaysian Airlines jet (Malaysia Airlines Flight 17), after which he deleted the post and blamed Ukraine's military for downing the plane. [56] [57] In 2017, the March for Science originated from a discussion on Reddit that indicated someone had visited Archive.org and discovered that all references to climate change had been deleted from the White House website. In response, a user commented, "There needs to be a Scientists' March on Washington". [58] [59] [60]

Furthermore, the site is used heavily for verification, providing access to references and content creation by Wikipedia editors. [61]

In September 2020, a partnership was announced with Cloudflare to automatically archive websites served via its "Always Online" service, which will also allow it to direct users to its copy of the site if it cannot reach the original host. [62]

Limitations Edit

In 2014 there was a six-month lag time between when a website was crawled and when it became available for viewing in the Wayback Machine. [63] Currently, the lag time is 3 to 10 hours. [64] The Wayback Machine offers only limited search facilities. Its "Site Search" feature allows users to find a site based on words describing the site, rather than words found on the web pages themselves. [65]

The Wayback Machine does not include every web page ever made due to the limitations of its web crawler. The Wayback Machine cannot completely archive web pages that contain interactive features such as Flash platforms and forms written in JavaScript and progressive web applications, because those functions require interaction with the host website. This means that, since June 2013, the Wayback Machine has been unable to display YouTube comments when saving YouTube pages, as, according to the Archive Team, comments are no longer "loaded within the page itself." [66] The Wayback Machine's web crawler has difficulty extracting anything not coded in HTML or one of its variants, which can often result in broken hyperlinks and missing images. Due to this, the web crawler cannot archive "orphan pages" that are not linked to by other pages. [65] [67] The Wayback Machine's crawler only follows a predetermined number of hyperlinks based on a preset depth limit, so it cannot archive every hyperlink on every page. [19]

Starting in April 2018, administrative staff members of the Wayback Machine's archive team have enforced the Quarter month rule, by occasionally deleting time intervals of 23 days or 39 days (3/4 and 5/4 of a month, respectively), in order to reduce the queue size. [ kaynak belirtilmeli ]

In legal evidence Edit

Civil litigation Edit

Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. Düzenlemek

In a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc., defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots.txt file on its website that was causing the Wayback Machine to retroactively remove access to previous versions of pages it had archived from Netbula's site, pages that Chordiant believed would support its case. [68]

Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbula's website and that they should have subpoenaed Internet Archive for the pages directly. [69] An employee of Internet Archive filed a sworn statement supporting Chordiant's motion, however, stating that it could not produce the web pages by any other means "without considerable burden, expense and disruption to its operations." [68]

Magistrate Judge Howard Lloyd in the Northern District of California, San Jose Division, rejected Netbula's arguments and ordered them to disable the robots.txt blockage temporarily in order to allow Chordiant to retrieve the archived pages that they sought. [68]

Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite Düzenlemek

In an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No. 02 C 3293, 65 Fed. R. Evid. Serv. 673 (N.D. Ill. October 15, 2004), a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, perhaps for the first time. Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network. Prior to the trial proceedings, EchoStar indicated that it intended to offer Wayback Machine snapshots as proof of the past content of Telewizja Polska's website. Telewizja Polska brought a motion in limine to suppress the snapshots on the grounds of hearsay and unauthenticated source, but Magistrate Judge Arlander Keys rejected Telewizja Polska's assertion of hearsay and denied TVP's motion in limine to exclude the evidence at trial. [70] [71] At the trial, however, District Court Judge Ronald Guzman, the trial judge, overruled Magistrate Keys' findings, and held that neither the affidavit of the Internet Archive employee nor the underlying pages (i.e., the Telewizja Polska website) were admissible as evidence. Judge Guzman reasoned that the employee's affidavit contained both hearsay and inconclusive supporting statements, and the purported web page, printouts were not self-authenticating. [72] [73]

Patent law Edit

Provided some additional requirements are met (e.g., providing an authoritative statement of the archivist), the United States patent office and the European Patent Office will accept date stamps from the Internet Archive as evidence of when a given Web page was accessible to the public. These dates are used to determine if a Web page is available as prior art for instance in examining a patent application. [74]

Limitations of utility Edit

There are technical limitations to archiving a website, and as a consequence, it is possible for opposing parties in litigation to misuse the results provided by website archives. This problem can be exacerbated by the practice of submitting screenshots of web pages in complaints, answers, or expert witness reports when the underlying links are not exposed and therefore, can contain errors. For example, archives such as the Wayback Machine do not fill out forms and therefore, do not include the contents of non-RESTful e-commerce databases in their archives. [75]

In Europe, the Wayback Machine could be interpreted as violating copyright laws. Only the content creator can decide where their content is published or duplicated, so the Archive would have to delete pages from its system upon request of the creator. [76] The exclusion policies for the Wayback Machine may be found in the FAQ section of the site. [77]

A number of cases have been brought against the Internet Archive specifically for its Wayback Machine archiving efforts.

Scientology Edit

In late 2002, the Internet Archive removed various sites that were critical of Scientology from the Wayback Machine. [78] An error message stated that this was in response to a "request by the site owner". [79] Later, it was clarified that lawyers from the Church of Scientology had demanded the removal and that the site owners did not want their material removed. [80]

Healthcare Advocates, Inc. Edit

In 2003, Harding Earley Follmer & Frailey defended a client from a trademark dispute using the Archive's Wayback Machine. The attorneys were able to demonstrate that the claims made by the plaintiff were invalid, based on the content of their website from several years prior. The plaintiff, Healthcare Advocates, then amended their complaint to include the Internet Archive, accusing the organization of copyright infringement as well as violations of the DMCA and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Healthcare Advocates claimed that, since they had installed a robots.txt file on their website, even if after the initial lawsuit was filed, the Archive should have removed all previous copies of the plaintiff website from the Wayback Machine, however, some material continued to be publicly visible on Wayback. [81] The lawsuit was settled out of court, after Wayback fixed the problem. [82]

Suzanne Shell Edit

Activist Suzanne Shell filed suit in December 2005, demanding Internet Archive pay her US$100,000 for archiving her website profane-justice.org between 1999 and 2004. [83] [84] Internet Archive filed a declaratory judgment action in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on January 20, 2006, seeking a judicial determination that Internet Archive did not violate Shell's copyright. Shell responded and brought a countersuit against Internet Archive for archiving her site, which she alleges is in violation of her terms of service. [85] On February 13, 2007, a judge for the United States District Court for the District of Colorado dismissed all counterclaims except breach of contract. [84] The Internet Archive did not move to dismiss copyright infringement claims Shell asserted arising out of its copying activities, which would also go forward. [86]

On April 25, 2007, Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell jointly announced the settlement of their lawsuit. [83] The Internet Archive said it ". has no interest in including materials in the Wayback Machine of persons who do not wish to have their Web content archived. We recognize that Ms Shell has a valid and enforceable copyright in her Web site and we regret that the inclusion of her Web site in the Wayback Machine resulted in this litigation." Shell said, "I respect the historical value of Internet Archive's goal. I never intended to interfere with that goal nor cause it any harm." [87]

Daniel Davydiuk Edit

Between 2013 and 2016, a pornographic actor named Daniel Davydiuk tried to remove archived images of himself from the Wayback Machine's archive, first by sending multiple DMCA requests to the archive, and then by appealing to the Federal Court of Canada. [88] [89] [90]

Archive.org is currently blocked in China. [91] [92] After the Islamic State terrorist organization was banned, the Internet Archive had been blocked in its entirety in Russia as a host of an outreach video from that organization, for a short time in 2015–16. [56] [93] [94] [ güncelleme gerekiyor ] Since 2016 the website has been back, available in its entirety, although local commercial lobbyists are suing the Internet Archive in a local court to ban it on copyright grounds. [95]

Alison Macrina, director of the Library Freedom Project, notes that "while librarians deeply value individual privacy, we also strongly oppose censorship". [56]

There are known rare cases where online access to content which "for nothing" has put people in danger was disabled by the website. [56] [ açıklama gerekli ]

Other threats include natural disasters, [96] destruction (remote or physical), [97] manipulation of the archive's contents (see also: cyberattack, backup), problematic copyright laws [98] and surveillance of the site's users. [99]

Alexander Rose, executive director of the Long Now Foundation, suspects that in the long-term of multiple generations "next to nothing" will survive in a useful way, stating, "If we have continuity in our technological civilization, I suspect a lot of the bare data will remain findable and searchable. But I suspect almost nothing of the format in which it was delivered will be recognizable", because sites "with deep back-ends of content-management systems like Drupal and Ruby and Django" are harder to archive. [100]

In an article reflecting on the preservation of human knowledge, Atlantik Okyanusu has commented that the Internet Archive, which describes itself to be built for the long-term, [101] "is working furiously to capture data before it disappears without any long-term infrastructure to speak of." [102]


Pioneers of the Field

This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Online publication date: August 2016
  • Basılı yayın yılı: 2016
  • Online ISBN: 9781316584187
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316584187
  • Series: The International African Library (51)
  • Subjects: Area Studies, African Studies, Social and Cultural Anthropology, History, Anthropology: General Interest, Anthropology, African History

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Book description

Focusing on the crucial contributions of women researchers, Andrew Bank demonstrates that the modern school of social anthropology in South Africa was uniquely female-dominated. The book traces the personal and intellectual histories of six remarkable women through the use of a rich cocktail of archival sources, including family photographs, private and professional correspondence, field-notes and field diaries, published and other public writings and even love letters. The book also sheds new light on the close connections between their personal lives, their academic work and their anti-segregationist and anti-apartheid politics. It will be welcomed by anthropologists, historians and students in African studies interested in the development of social anthropology in twentieth-century Africa, as well as by students and researchers in the field of gender studies.

Reviews

‘Andrew Bank has made a major contribution to intellectual history in a volume that recognises the role played by six women anthropologists who were major contributors to the creation of a distinctive South African voice in anthropology: Winifred Hoernle, Audrey Richards, Monica Hunter Wilson, Hilda Beemer Kuper, Ellen Hellman and Eileen Jensen Krige. All, with the exception of Audrey Richards, were South African by birth. They were headed by Winifred Hoernle, founder of the anthropology department at the University of Witswatersrand. She was an inspiring teacher and mentor who encouraged her students to read widely, think deeply, and do superb ethnographic studies that focused on the contemporary world of Southern Africa with its reserves, farms, small towns and mining centres. Somehow these women have largely been forgotten by successors who owed them much but did not know it. This work celebrates their enduring contribution to the study of African life and the development of the anthropological discipline.'

Elizabeth Colson - University of California, Berkeley

‘Original, meticulously researched and eminently readable, Andrew Bank's landmark study in the history of South African anthropology in its formative phase is a major corrective to the male-dominated view in which the achievements of women anthropologists were greatly undervalued. Aside from its main thesis, the compelling human interest of this book lies in the finely drawn and richly documented biographical portraits of six talented women, ‘foremothers' of the Wits anthropology department. Four of these remarkable women were star pupils of Bronislaw Malinowski, whose innovative fieldwork methods they deployed to great effect in their ethnographic accounts. Andrew Bank has succeeded brilliantly in bringing their lives and works together in an engagingly written narrative celebrating their humanist legacy.'

Michael Young - Australian National University, Canberra

‘Andrew Bank's insightful scholarship provides a much-needed revision not only to the history of South African anthropology, but to the history of socio-cultural anthropology in general. His vivid portraits of six outstanding South African women social anthropologists beginning with the dynamic Winifred Hoernle and continuing with her exceptional female students - lead us to amend the heretofore androcentric history of social anthropology in South Africa. But perhaps even more significantly, Bank presents a compelling argument that causes us to appreciate the important role these women - and by association, social anthropology - played in the anti-apartheid movement and the transformation of race relations in twentieth-century South Africa.'

Nancy Lutkehaus - University of Southern California

‘This penetrating study of pioneering women academics in South Africa and beyond explores the tensions between personal, scholarly and political engagements. A major contribution to African studies, it will also enrich - and complicate - current debates about the public role of anthropology.'

Adam Kuper - Centennial Professor, London School of Economics and Political Science

'[In] Pioneers of the Field Bank has made an important contribution to the history of social anthropology by reclaiming the place of its foremothers.'

Anne Heffernan Source: Africa at LSE Blog (www.blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse)

‘Andrew Bank has provided us with a panoply of new stories and a range of far-reaching analyses that will, for many years to come, inform our teaching, research, writing and, perhaps, even our sense of what on earth anthropology was and is all about.’


Videoyu izle: ZKV presents..Privacy on Polkadot - Introducing Phala Network - Marvin Tong, Phala


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  1. Shakara

    Okudum ve sonuç verdim, teşekkürler.

  2. Silvestre

    Şu anda tartışmaya katılamadığım için özür dilerim - çok meşgulüm. Ama özgür olacağım - bu konuda kesinlikle düşündüğümü yazacağım.

  3. Devyn

    Yetenek ...

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    Şimdi tartışmaya katılamam - çok meşgul. Geri döneceğim - mutlaka bu soru hakkındaki görüşümü ifade edeceğim.

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    Benimkinde en iyi varyant değil

  6. Mazuran

    Bu konuda çok fazla konuşma vardı. Ama bence bu çöp.

  7. Kelabar

    Haklı olmadığını düşünüyorum. Eminim. Kanıtlayabilirim. PM'de yazın, iletişim kuracağız.



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